Background: Pregnancy with intrauterine growth restricted fetus is at greater risk for poor Perinatal and long-term outcome than babies with normal weight. Therefore, intrauterine growth restriction is a major global health concern especially in poor and developing Countries. The placental examination can be a great help in identifying growth restricted foetuses.
Research problem or aim: The objective of this study is to examine various morphometric and histopathological changes including inflammation in placentae of growth restricted fetuses along with screening for infections, and to correlate these findings with the etiology and fetal outcome in intrauterine growth restriction.
Method: In the current study, 53 placentae of normal fetus were compared with 53Placentae of fetus with intrauterine growth restriction. The criteria for intrauterine growth restriction were gestational age more than 32 weeks and all fetuses with weight Less than 10th percentile for that gestation. Histopathological examination along with laboratory screening for infections and inflammation was carried out on placentae. Similarly, fetal outcome were determined in normal versus intrauterine growth restricted pregnancy.
Results: The placental examination showed calcification in intrauterine growth restricted Pregnancy as well as in normal pregnancy. However, calcification in placenta associated with intrauterine growth restriction was much denser as compare to placenta from normal pregnancy. The absence of intrauterine infection and inflammation along with good antenatal and postnatal care can deliver favourable outcome in pregnancies with intrauterine growth restriction.
Conclusion: This research study reaffirms that best prenatal and antenatal clinical practices can overcome social, epidemiological, and pathological determinants in intrauterine growth restriction to deliver better obstetric results in pregnancy and ensuring good quality of postnatal life for mother and fetus.