INTRODUCTION: Infertile couples are usually advised to start their investigations after 12 months of trying to conceive or after 6 months if the female partner is more than 35 years old or immediately if there is an obvious reason to investigate. Each couple undergoes thorough physical examination and a structured battery of investigations. In females this comprises performing hormonal profile, ovarian reserve evaluation, rule out tuberculosis, confirm tubal patency and assess uterine cavity, ovulation assessment and infectious screen in both partners to rule out HIV, Hepatitis B, and Hepatitis C. Similarly, in males after semen examination and repeat abnormal examination, he is further investigated with hormonal profile, scrotal ultrasound and FNAC of testes if needed. A diagnosis based on these investigations as to the cause of infertility is reached thereafter and treatment planned. There is a tendency of these patients to change doctors once treatment does not seem to be bearing results and if they have had some previous assessment and treatment for their infertility, this data should be cautiously reviewed. Treatment options available will also depend on the duration of their infertility, which partner is affected, the age of the female partner and if any previous children conceived, the underlying pathological cause, and if the treatment will be covered by insurance or the cost involved. One of the most important achievements unarguably of the 20th century has been the birth of first baby by IVF in 1978. However, since its introduction in 1962, progress in IUI has remained static. Counselling, ovarian stimulation and monitoring of follicles and semen preparation are steps common to IUI and IVF. First line treatment is an enigma for the treating doctor. IUI involves insemination of prepared semen in the uterine cavity and fertilization in the female genital tract whereas IVF involves fertilization in culture dish and transfer of embryo in the uterine cavity. IUI is less intrusive, more patient friendly, less stressful, very safe procedure.