Journal of Basic and Clinical Reproductive Sciences

Journal of Basic and Clinical Reproductive Sciences
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Incidence and Determinants of Stillbirth amongst Parturients in Two Hospitals in Southern Nigeria

Author(s): Lawrence O Omo‑Aghoja, EA Onohwakpor, AT Adeyinka, JA Omene

Background: Fetal death is a major but often overlooked public health issue. Aim: Knowledge of the causes and risk factors will help in designing measures to reduce the burden of fetal death in Nigeria. Materials and Methods: A 5 year descriptive study of all fetal mortality of >28 weeks in Southern Nigeria. Relevant details were extracted from the case notes and the registers in the labor ward, maternity ward, the labor ward theater and the main theater. Statistical Analysis Used: The data was analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Scientist (SPSS PC+) and this consisted of univariate analysis and comparisons of identified relationships. Results: The total number of deliveries from 28 weeks was 25,780 and the number of parturients with fetal mortality after 28 weeks was 157 and therefore the incidence of stillbirth was 0.6% giving a mortality rate of 6.1/1000 total births. However, 148 (85%) case notes of the total fetal deaths were retrieved and formed the study sample. Socio-demographic variables such as extremes of age and parity, unbooked status, unemployment, unmarried, Isoko, Itsekiri and Ijaw ethnic groups and primary level or no formal education were determinants of stillbirth. Others were maternal diabetes mellitus, malaria, hypertension, labor duration >4 h, instrumental or assisted vaginal delivery, gestational age at booking >12 weeks, low birth weight and preterm births. Conclusion: The fetal mortality (stillbirth) rate was low and the determinants were identified. Public health education, female education and socio-economic empowerment are suggested preventive measures.

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