Journal of Basic and Clinical Reproductive Sciences

Journal of Basic and Clinical Reproductive Sciences
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Rekha Siripurapu*
DDepartment of Neuroradiology, Manchester Centre for Clinical Neurosciences, Salford Royal Hospital, Northern Care Alliance NHS Foundation Trust, Lane, Salford, M6 8HD, UK, Email:
*Correspondence: Rekha Siripurapu, DDepartment of Neuroradiology, Manchester Centre for Clinical Neurosciences, Salford Royal Hospital, Northern Care Alliance NHS Foundation Trust, Lane, Salford, M6 8HD, UK, Email:

Received: 10-Jan-2023, Manuscript No. JBCRS-23-96191; Editor assigned: 12-Jan-2023, Pre QC No. JBCRS-23-96191; Accepted Date: Feb 10, 2023 ; Reviewed: 23-Jan-2023 QC No. JBCRS-23-96191; Revised: 03-Feb-2023, Manuscript No. JBCRS-23-96191; Published: 10-Feb-2023

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Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection remains a global health challenge, with over 38 million people living with HIV worldwide. Despite advances in Antiretroviral Therapy (ART) and efforts towards prevention, HIV continues to pose significant social, economic, and public health burdens. This manuscript provides a comprehensive review of the complexities of HIV infection, including its epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention strategies. Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) is a retrovirus that attacks the immune system, specifically targeting CD4+ T cells, leading to a progressive decline in immune function. The resultant immunodeficiency makes individuals susceptible to opportunistic infections and malignancies, leading to Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS). HIV is transmitted through various routes, including sexual contact, blood transfusion, sharing needles, and mother-to-child transmission during childbirth, breastfeeding, or pregnancy.


HIV/AIDS is a global pandemic, with sub-Saharan Africa being the most affected region. However, it also has a significant impact on other parts of the world, including Asia, the Americas, and Eastern Europe. Despite significant progress in reducing new infections and AIDS-related deaths, HIV remains a major public health concern, particularly among key populations such as men who have sex with men, people who inject drugs, sex workers, transgender individuals, and people living in low-income and marginalized communities.


The pathogenesis of HIV infection involves a complex interplay between the virus and the immune system. After entry into the host’s bloodstream, HIV attaches to CD4+ T cells through its envelope glycoproteins (gp120 and gp41) and enters the cell, where it undergoes reverse transcription and integration into the host genome. This leads to the production of new viral particles, which can infect other CD4+ T cells, causing a progressive decline in their numbers. HIV also induces chronic immune activation and inflammation, contributing to the overall immunodeficiency seen in HIV/AIDS.

Clinical manifestations

HIV infection progresses through various stages, including acute infection, asymptomatic chronic infection, symptomatic infection, and AIDS. Acute HIV infection is often asymptomatic or presents with flu-like symptoms, making it difficult to diagnose. As the infection progresses, individuals may develop clinical manifestations such as persistent fever, weight loss, oral and genital ulcers, chronic diarrhea, and opportunistic infections such as tuberculosis, candidiasis, and Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia. Neurological complications, malignancies, and other organ system involvement can also occur in advanced stages of HIV/AIDS.


Diagnosis of HIV infection involves a combination of serological and molecular tests. Serological tests detect antibodies against HIV, while molecular tests detect viral nucleic acids. Rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) have made HIV testing more accessible in resource-limited settings. Early diagnosis of HIV is crucial to initiate timely ART, which can significantly improve the prognosis and reduce transmission to others.


Antiretroviral therapy (ART) is the cornerstone of HIV management. ART consists of a combination of drugs that target different steps in the HIV life cycle, including reverse transcription, integration, and viral maturation. ART effectively suppresses viral replication, restores immune function, and reduces morbidity and mortality associated with HIV/AIDS. However, long-term adherence to ART is essential to maintain viral suppression and prevent the development of drug resistance.

Prevention Strategies: Prevention of HIV infection involves a combination of behavioral, biomedical, and structural interventions. Behavioral interventions include promoting safer sex practices, needle exchange programs, and stigma reduction efforts.

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