Journal of Basic and Clinical Reproductive Sciences

Journal of Basic and Clinical Reproductive Sciences
Ramandeep Singh*, Satinder Kakar, Manisha Shah and Rishab Jain
 
Department of Pharmacy, Himachal Institute of Pharmacy, Paonta Sahib, Himachal Pradesh, India
 
*Correspondence: Ramandeep Singh, Department of Pharmacy, Himachal Institute of Pharmacy, Paonta Sahib, Himachal Pradesh, India, Email: [email protected]

Received Date: Mar 13, 2018 / Accepted Date: Apr 16, 2018 / Published Date: Mar 20, 2018

Citation: Singh R, Kakar S, Shah M, Jain R Some Medicinal Plants with Anti-Fertility Potential: A Current Status doi: 10.4103/2278-960X.194512

This open-access article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (CC BY-NC) (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/), which permits reuse, distribution and reproduction of the article, provided that the original work is properly cited and the reuse is restricted to noncommercial purposes. For commercial reuse, contact [email protected]

Abstract

The increase in population is becoming a comprehensive dilemma, causing much pressure on economic, social and natural assets. Oral contraceptive agents have improved the rate of infertility but their unusual side effects limit the use. Current antifertility therapy lacks satisfactory success due to this adverse effect; hence, patients are seeking complementary and alternative medicine for anti-fertility action. Ayurveda and other Indian literature mention the use of plants in various human ailments. India has about more than 45000 plant species and among them several thousand are claimed to possess medicinal properties. Researchers conducted in the last few decades on the plants mentioned in ancient literature or used traditionally for anti-fertility action. This review reveals that some plants and their part used having anti-fertility action, which are helpful for researcher to develop new herbal anti-fertility formulations. In the recent years, interest in drugs of plant origin has been progressively increased.

Keywords

Anti-fertility, Contraceptives, Review

Abbreviations

AP:(All Parts); BR:(Bark); BU:(Bulb); EX:(Exudates); FJ: (Fruit Juice); FL (Flower); FB (Flower Buds); FR:(Fruit); FS: (Flower Stem); GU:(gum); HU:(Husk); IF:(Inflorescence); K: (Kernels); LA:(Latex); LF:(Leaf); P:(Petiol); PC:(Pericarp); PE: (Peduncle); PL:(Whole Plant); PT:(Petals); PX:(Plant Without Root); RB:(Root Bark); RE:(Resin), RH:(Rhizome); RT (Root); SB:(Stem Bark); SD:(Seed); SP:(Sapadix); ST:(Stem); TH: (Thallus); TU:(Tuber); WD (Wood); YS (Young Stem).

Introduction

The population explosion is a leading cause of poverty and pollution in developing countries [1]. Exponentially growing population has been adversely affecting the social, economic and technological development of human race [2]. Therefore to reduce/control our number has to be the first on a priority list. A good number of synthetic contraceptives are available in market, each one with either a limited success or side effects [2]. It created a population control programme, which includes studies of traditional medical practices [1]. Since ancient times, plants have been a source of drugs, but scientific medicines tend to ignore the importance of herbal medicine [3]. The World Health Organization suggested that effective, locally available plants can be used as substitutes for drugs [1].

Medicinal plants in India have been screened for contraceptive potential and anti-fertility effects, since the country has always been concerned about population explosion [1]. Exploration of drugs having anti-fertility activity is the need of current time, and many time plant extracts have been investigated for their anti-fertility effect in animals [4].Since herbal drugs are easily available and with no side effects, the current study was undertaken [2].

Some Medicinal Plants with Anti-Fertility Potential

Some medicinal plants have proven to possess a traditional as well as scientifically proven anti-fertility action. A brief report of plants has been tested for antifertility potential are documented.

Adiantum lunulatum (Pteridaceae)

Effects of crude extract, both alcoholic and decoction of whole plant of Adiantum lunulatum Burm was observed on the reproductive structures of male albino rat after the oral administration of 100 mg/kg, 250 mg/kg; and 500 mg/kg b.w. for 30, 60, 90 days respectively. A dose and duration dependent effects on testis, epididymis, vas deferens and accessory reproductive organs of the rats were observed. The treatment resulted in deformation in the germ cells of testis Leydig's cell were atrophied. No spermatozoa could be seen in the seminiferous tubules and were filled either with edematous fluid or degenerated cellular debris [5] .

Balanites roxburghii (Balanitaceae)

Balanites Roxburghii is a small evergreen thorny tree found in drier parts of India. Aqueous suspension of dried fruits of this plant is being used as abortifacient by local herbal healers. Petroleum ether, chloroform, ethanol, and distilled water extracts of the fruits of the plant Balanites roxburghii (Balanitaceae) were tested for antifertility activity in female albino rats at a dose of 300 and 600 mg/kg body weight orally. Among these, the ethanol extract was found to be most effective in causing significant abortifacient activity. The antifertility activity was found to be dose dependent and reversible on withdrawal of the treatment [6].

Cannabis sativan (Cannabinaceae)

According to folklore medicine, the plant Cannabis sativa (Cannabinaceae) possesses antifertility activity. Aqueous, alcoholic and chloroform extract of Cannabis sativa exhibited significant abortificient activity (9% to 42%). The alcoholic extract at a dose of 400 mg/kg body weight was found to be most effective in causing strong abortifacient activity. The extract also showed estrogenic activity and prolonged the estrous cycle in experimental animal. The extract of Cannabis sativa caused a significant decrease in the ovarian and uterine weight, while a non-significant increase in the body weight. There was a slight decrease in the serum estrogen level and an increase in serum progesterone level, while the level of LH and FSH were found to be significantly reduced [1].

Carica papaya (Caricaceae) and Capparis aphylla (Capparidaceae)

Anti-fertility activity of herbal oral contraceptive suspension containing methanol extracts of plants Carica papaya leaves and Capparis aphylla aerial part, known to be potent contraceptive activity in folklore/ancient Indian literature. The method mainly involves the administration of different doses namely 200, 300 & 400 mg/kg of HOCS (herbal oral contraceptive suspension) to rats in group II, III & IV respectively, along with control dose Finding of this study revealed a significant (p<0.05) reduction in the weights of reproductive organs like testis, epididymis and seminal vesicle in HOCS treated rats when compared with control. The sperm concentration in the epididymis and sperm motility decreased, whereas sperm abnormalities increased and also the duration of sperm motility reduced with respect to different doses of HOCS. Thus the results indicate disruption of the spermatogenic as well as androgenic properties [7].

Cordia dichotoma (Boraginaceae)

Hydroalcoholic extract of Cordia dichotoma G Forst. (C. dichotoma) leaves, used to produce sterility among the tribal women through its abortificient activity. The extract was found to be safe up to dose of 2000 mg/kg body weight when administered orally. A good Antiimplantation (81.22%) activity in female rats was observed at the tested dose levels (200 and 400 mg/kg, orally). The extract further showed more significant (P0.01) increase in uterine weight and significant change in biochemical parameters in immature rats. Simultaneous administration of extract along with ethinyl estradiol showed significant estrogenic activity [8].

Curcuma longa (Zingiberaceae) and Andrographis paniculata (Acanthaceae)

The antifertility effect of curcumin and andrographolide was evaluated by measuring their effect on implantation and estrus cycle of rats. The combination significantly reduced the number of implants and the size of the litters in rats compared to the normal control group. The combination also significantly altered the durations of each phase of estrus cycle and synergized the effect to decrease the number of ovarian follicles [9].

Dactyloctenium aegyptium (Poaceae)

Ethanolic extract of D. aegyptium extract at a dose of 200, 400, and 600 mg/kg body weight were administered, respectively for a period of 30 days. A non-significant increase in the bodyweight and a significant decrease in weight of testes, accessory sex organs, and reduction in sperm count, increase motility and abnormality were observed. Some serum biochemical parameters showed significant variations and were as the serum hormonal levels are significantly decreased [10].

Dodonea viscosa (Sapindaceae)

Dodonea viscose Linn (Sapindaceae) is an erect perennial shrub found throughout the hotter parts of India and Nepal. The methanolic extract of the leaves of this plant were investigated for their anti-fertility activity in female rats. The identification of the secondary metabolites showed that the leaves of the plant contained alkaloids, phytosterols and polyphenols. It was found that the extract reduced significantly (p<0.01) the number of liters and administered through oral route. It also produced ant fertility effect in a dose dependent manner and the contraceptive effect was manifested for a definite period of time [11].

Enicostemma axillare (Gentianaceae) and Urena lobata (Malvaceae)

Six groups of rats were treated with ethanolic (70% v/v) extracts of E. axillare (375 and 750 mg/kg body weight) and U. lobata root (300 and 600 mg/kg body weight) once daily for 55 days. The E. axillare and U. lobataat tested doses did not decrease body weight, whereas the weight of testes, epididymides and seminal vesicles were significantly (P<0.01) reduced. Significantly (P<0.01) more reduction in sperm motility viability and counts, epididymal and testicular protein contents were noted in the rats treated with the higher doses of plants. Both the plants at higher dose caused a marked increase (P<0.01) in sperm morphological abnormalities, testicular cholesterol and ascorbic acid contents were remarkably increased (P<0.01), while, the activities of testicular glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PDH) and Δ5-3β-hydroxy steroid dehydrogenase (Δ5-3β-HSD) were significantly reduce [12].

Ficus racemosa (Moraceae)

Swiss male mice were orally administered hydroalcoholic extract of Ficus racemosa bark (50 mg/kg for 30 d and 100 mg/kg body weight for next 30 d), and the effect of the treatment on body weight, reproductive organs weight, sperm, biochemical profile (sialic acid in epididymis and fructose in seminal vesicle), fertility and vaginal contraceptive efficacy was investigated. Extract reduced fertility to 70% within 60 d. Suppression of cauda epididymis sperm count, motility, viability and abnormal morphology was observed. Marked reduction was noted in the weight of reproductive organs and the level of sialic acid in epididymis and fructose in seminal vesicle. Vaginal application of bark extract exhibited 80% vaginal contraceptive efficacy. After cessation of plant extract treatment, the altered parameters recovered after 60 d [13].

Jatropha gossypifolia (Euphorbiaceae)

Jatropha gossypifolia leaf extract, when administered orally, altered the estrous cycle pattern in female mice, prolong the length of estrous cycle with significant increase in the duration of diestrus stage and reduced significantly the number of litters in albino mice. Treatment of mice with extract of 250 and 450 mg/kg body weight/day for 21 days caused a prolonged estrous cycle with significant increase in the duration of diestrus phase and elongation of estrus stage in treatment with higher dose (450 mg/kg body weight/day) [14].

Madhuca latifolia (Sapotaceae)

Madhuca latifolia (Roxb.) Macbride a tall tree commonly known as “Mahuwa” belong to family Sapotaceae. When the aqueous powdered drug (2 gm/ body weight) was administered to male albino rats has proved to be an effective antifertility drug. The activity was confirmed by significant decrease in sperm count, biochemical assays so also through histopathological investigations. Hence seeds of Madhuca latifolia can be a reliable herbal option after the necessary clinical trials [3].

Michelia champaca (Magnoliaceae)

Michelia champaca L. (family: Magnoliaceae), commonly known as Champa [Hindi], is traditionally used for fertility regulation by the women of Chhattisgarh state in India. The antifertility activity of the extract administered at dose levels (100 and 200 mg/kg body weight, po.) was evaluated in two experimental animal models i.e. anti-implantation activity in female wistar rats and estrogenic/antiestrogenic activity in ovariectomized female rats. The extract showed significant (po0.01) 49.95% and 71.03% anti-implantation activities at 100 and 200 mg/kg doses respectively. The extract also exhibited significant (po0.01) estrogenic activity as evidenced by increase in body weight, uterine weight, increased thickness and height of endometrium, vaginal cornification and significant (po0.01) increase in estrogen, cholesterol, alkaline phosphate and triglycerides levels at higher dose when administered alone as well as along with ethinyl estradiol [15].

Nelumbo nucifera (Nymphaeaceae)

Nelumbo nucifera has been used as antifertility agent in females by the local tribals of Rajasthan especially of Udaipur district India. Ethanolic extract at dose of 800 mg/kg b.wt. for investigating the nature of the drug and antifertility effect Data revealed that oral administration of Nelumbo nucifera extract brought about a significant decline in the weight of Ovary; Control (43 ± 4.75mg), Nelumboextract treated (25 ± 3.86mg), Uterus; Control (236 ± 0.004mg), Nelumbo extract treated(214 ± 0.007mg) and Vagina; Control(221 ± 0.002mg), Nelumbo extract treated(178 ± 0.003mg) as well as protein and glycogen level, however cholesterol level increased significantly. In addition, the diestrous phase of the estrous cycle was found to be prolonged; Control (1.81 ± 0.21) days, Nelumbo extract treated (3.62 ± 0.42) days [16,40-65].

Piper nigrum (Piperaceae)

Piper nigrum is commonly known as black pepper. Effect of oral administration (25 and 100mg/kg body wt/day for 20 and 90 days) of fruit powder of Piper nigrum on the male reproductive organs of mice was investigated. Treated groups show degenerative changes in the seminiferous tubules. Percentage of affected tubules in testes of piper treated mice was dose and duration related. Further, Piper nigrum treatment for 20days did not cause appreciable alterations in the histological appearance of the epididymis, while the treatment for 90days caused detectable alterations in the duct [17,65-74].

Ruta graveolens (Rutaceae)

Different preparations of Ruta graveolens were administered orally to female rats (Days 1–10 post coition) and female hamsters (Days 1-6 post coition). The powdered root (CDR), aerial parts (CDA) and the aerial parts aqueous extract (AEA) all showed potential anticonceptive activity in rats. Limited administration on selected days of CDA showed uniformly lesser activity than with 10-day treatment. Sequentially prepared petroleum ether and methanol extracts of CDA were as active as CDA itself. The benzene and chloroform extracts were toxic and inactive. Rutin, a known chemical constituent of the plant, was found to be inactive. None of the above preparations showed activity in hamster [18].

Striga orobanchoides (Scrophulariaceae)

The two flavones, apigenin and luteolin, isolated from Striga orobanchioides, were investigated for endocrine and contraceptive properties. Graded doses of these compounds (5-25 mg/kg body weight/day) when administered from day 1 to day 4 of pregnancy showed dose-dependent and significant anti-implantation activity. The mean effective Dose 100% (MED(100)) for both compounds was found to be 25 mg/kg body weight. Oral administration of these compounds caused a significant increase in uterine weight in immature ovariectomised rats. It also caused a significant increase in uterine diameter, thickness of the endometrium and its epithelial cell height when compared with those of control rats [19].

Terminalia chebula (Combretaceae)

Aqueous-ethanolic (1:1) extract of fruit of T. chebula was administered orally at a dose of 60 mg/0.5 mL distilled water/day for 28 days. The treated group showed a significant diminution in spermatogenic profile. On the other hand testicular cholesterol showed a significant elevation in T. chebula treated group and plasma testosterone was decreased significantly in comparison to control. The above said androgenic key enzymes were exerted a significant diminution in extract treated group. Anti-oxidative enzymes such as catalase and superoxide dismutase showed a significant reduction and a significant elevation in conjugated diene and Thiobarbituric acid reactive substance was noted in treated group. GOT and GPT study of liver and kidney showed a non-significant change which confirmed the non-toxic nature of T. chebula . Histological study of testis of treated group exhibited significant reduction in seminiferous tubular diameter [20].(Table 1).

S. no. Plant name                             Family Common                                        name Part used References
1. Abroma angusta Linn. Sterculaceae Ulat kambal RT [22]
2. Abrus precatorius Linn. Fabaceae Ghungchi RT, SD [22]
3. Acacia leucophloea (Roxb.) Willd. Fabaceae Renjhua, Safed BR, LF, GU [23]
4. Achyranthes aspera Linn. Amaranthaceae kikar LF [24]
5. Achyranthes bidentata Blume. Amaranthaceae  - LF, RT [25]
6. Aconitum heterophyllum Wall. Ranunculaceae Atis RT [26]
7. Acorus calamus Linn. Araceae Bach RT [27]
8. Adhatoda vasica Nees Acanthaceae Adhusa PL [22]
9. Adiantum lunulatum Pteridaceae - AP [5]
10. Aerva lantana (L.) Juss. ex. Shult Amaranthaceae Chaya RT [28]
11. Agave americana Linn. Agavaceae Rambans RT Sap [22]
12. Ailanthus excelsa Roxb. Simaroubaceae Ghar Karnana SB [29]
13. Alangium salvifolium (L. f.) Wang. Alangiaceae Aankol RT [30]
14. Allium cepa Linn. Liliaceae Pyaj BU [22]
15. Allium sativum Linn. Liliaceae Lahsun SD, BU [22]
16. Aloe barbadensis Mill. Liliaceae Ghikwar LF [22]
17. Alternanthera philoxeroides Griseb. Amaranthaceae Jaisachi-ara PL [28]
18. Alysicarpus vaginalis Fabaceae Davai RT [23]
19. Amaranthus spinosus Linn. Amaranthaceae Katailichaula  – [29]
20. Ananas comosus Merr.Syn. A. sativus Bromeliaceae Anannas FR [31]
21. Anastatica hierochuntica Linn. Brassicaceae Garvaphul [22]
22. Andrographis paniculata Acanthaceae - - [9]
23. Aneilema conspicuum Kunth. Commelinaceae RT [32]
24. Anethum sowa Kurz. Apiaceae Soya FR [26]
25. Annona reticulta Linn. Annonaceae Ramphal SD [28]
26. Annona squamosa Linn. Annonaceae Sharifa, Sitaphalam SD,RT [31]
27. Anthemis nobilis Linn. Asteraceae Babuni-ka-phul Oil [33]
28. Anthocephalus cadamba Miq. Rubiaceae Kadamba RT, FL [32]
29. Anthriscus nemerosa (M. Bieb.) Spreng. Apiaceae Cow parsley PL [34]
30. Antidesma ghaesaembilla Gaertn. Euphorbiaceae Square leaf China laurel WD [34]
31. Apium graveolens Linn. Apiaceae Ajmud SD [22]
32. Areca catechu Linn. Arecaceae Supari FR [35]
33. Argyreia speciosa Sweet. Convolvulaceae Takoria alu TU [36]
34. Arisaema leschenaultia Araceae - TU, SP [25]
35. Aristolochia bracteata Retz. Aristolochiaceae Kirama RT [22]
36. Artemisia siversiana Willd. Asteraceae Charmara LF [37]
37. Artemisia vulgaris Linn. Asteraceae Nagadouna LF, RT [38]
38. Aristolochia indica Linn. Aristolochiaceae Isharmul RT [22]
39. Asplenium adiantum-nigrum Linn. Polypodiaceae Black Spleen. PL [33]
40. Avicennia marina Forssk. Vierch. Avicenniaceae Pyara ban LF [28]
41. Azadirachta indica A. Juss. Meliaceae Neem GU [22]
42. Balanites roxburghii Zygophyllaceae Desert date FR [6]
43. Bambusa arundinacea (Retz.)Willd. Poaceae Bans RT, LF [26]
44. Barleria crista Linn. Acanthaceae Jhinti RT [28]
45. Basella alba Linn. Basellaceae Lalbachlu, Poya RT [26]
46. Bauhinia racemosa Lam. Fabaceae Apta SB [39]
47. Bauhinia retusa Ham. Fabaceae Semla RE [22]
48. Berberis aristata DC. Berberidaceae Dar-hald EX [22]
49. Beta vulgaris Linn. Chenopodiaceae Chukandar LF,RT,SD [22]
50. Betula bhojpattra Wall. Betulaceae Bhojpattra SB [26]
51. Blumea balsamifera L. DC. Asteraceae Kakaronda LF [22]
52. Bombax ceiba L. Bombacaceae Buruga SD [31]
53. Borassus flabellifer Linn. Arecaceae Tad RT [30]
54. Boswellia glabra Roxb. Burseraceae Lobhan RE [22]
55. Brassica indica Brassicaceae Kadugu SD [40]
56. Brassica juncea Coss Brassicaceae Rai Oil [22]
57. Brassica nigra Linn. & Koch. Brassicaceae Banarsi rai SD [26]
58. Bridelia retusa (L.) Spreng. Euphorbiaceae Lankpana BR [30]
59. Buddleja asiatica Lour. Buddlejaceae Bana RT [26]
60. Butea monosperma (Lam.) Kuntze Fabaceae Palas FL,LF, SD [33]
61. Caesalpinia bonducella Linn Fabaceae Kat-karanj SD [22]
62. Caesalpinia pulchrrima (Linn.) Swartz. Fabaceae Krishna chura LF [41]
63. Caesalpinia sappan Linn. Fabaceae Patang WD, LF [22]
64. Calendula officinalis Linn. Asteraceae Calandula FL [22]
65. Callicarpa macrophylla Vahl. Verbenaceae Daya   - [32]
66. Calotropis gigantea (Linn.) R. Br. Asclepiadaceae AK RB [22]
67. Calotropis procera (Ait.) R. Br. Asclepiadaceae Akada madar LA, PL, RT [42]
68. Cananga odorata Annonaceae Ylang FR [43]
69. Cannabis sativa Linn. Moraceae Bhang - [1]
70. Capparis aphylla Capparidaceae Wild caper AP [7]
71. Cardiospermum helicacabum Spindaceae Kanphuti PL [2]
72. Careya arborea Roxb. Lecythidaceae Pizh FB [40]
73. Carica papaya Linn. Caricaceae Papaya LF [7]
74. Carum carvi Linn. Apiaceae Shia Jira FR [26]
75. Cascabela thevetia (Linn.) Lippold Apocynaceae Pacha Ganneru SD [31]
76. Cassia fistula Linn. Fabaceae Rela FR [31]
77. Cassia lanceolata Linn. & Forsk Fabaceae Sana LF [22]
78. Cassia occidentalis Linn. Fabaceae Kasondi RT [44]
79. Cedrela toona Roxb. Meliaceae Tun FL [22]
80. Celastrus paniculata Willd. Celastraceae Malkangni SD [22]
81. Celosia argentea Linn. Amaranthaceae Kurdu RT [39]
82. Cenchrus biflorus Roxb. Poaceae Kutta ghash ST, SD [45]
83. Cerbera manghas Linn. Apocynaceae Dabur FR [32]
84. Cerbera odollam Gaertn. Apocynaceae Dhakur SD, LF [33]
85. Cicer arietinum Linn. Fabaceae Chana - [22]
86. Cichorium intybus Linn. Asteraceae Kasini SD [22]
87. Cinchona calisaya Wedd. Rubiaceae Cinchona BR [22]
88. Cinnamomum camphora Nees &Eberm. Lauraceae Kapoor - [22]
89. Cinnamomum cassia Blume Lauraceae Tej - [22]
90. Cissampelos pareira Linn. Menispermaceae Akanadi RT [26]
91. Citrullus colocynthis Schrad. Cucurbitaceae Indrayan RT [22]
92. Citrus medica Linn. Rutaceae Bara-Nimbu FR [26]
93. Clerodendrum phlomidis Linn. f. Verbenaceae Arni RT [46]
94. Colebrookia oppositifolia Lamiaceae Indian squirrel LF [47]
95. Commiphora mukul Burseraceae Guggul RE [22]
96. Cordia dichotoma Forst. Boraginaceae Lasora LF [8]
97. Cordia gharaf Roxb. Boraginaceae Gundi LF [23]
98. Cordia rothii Roem. & Schult Boraginaceae - RT [48]
99. Costus speciosus Koeing Zingiberaceae Chengalva Kostu RH [31]
100. Crataeva nurvala Buch.Ham. Capparidaceae Barun SB [49]
101. Crocus sativus Linn. Iridaceae Kesar FL [22]
102. Crotalaria juncea Linn. Fabaceae Sandi LF [22]
103. Croton roxburghii Euphorbiaceae Bhutala BR [50]
104. Cuminum cyminum Linn. Apiaceae Jira FR [22]
105. Curcuma longa Linn. Zingiberaceae Haldi RH [9]
106. Curcuma zedoaria Rosc. Zingiberaceae Kachura RH [22]
107. Cuscuta reflexa Roxb. Convolvulaceae Amar bel - [22]
108. Cynodon dactylon Pers. Poaceae Durva PL [39]
109. Cyperus rotundus Linn. Cyperaceae Motha TU [22]
110. Dactyloctenium aegyptium Poaceae - PL [10]
111. Datura metel Linn. Solanaceae Sadahdhatura LF, FR, RT [40]
112. Daucus carota Linn. Apiaceae Gajar SD [22]
113. Dendrophthoe falcata(Linn. f.) Ettingsahusen Loranthaceae Baramanda ST [28]
114. Dendrocalamus strictus (Roxb.) Poaceae Sadana LF [31]
115. Derris brevipes Baker. Fabaceae - RT [44]
116. Desmodium retroflexum DC. Fabaceae - RT [33]
117. Dioscorea pentaphylla Linn. Dioscoreaceae Lalvala vahrikand TU [35]
118. Diospyros cordifolia Roxb. Ebenaceae Karatendu FR,RT [35]
119. Dodonea viscosa Sapindaceae - LF [11]
120. Dolichandrone falcata Seem. Bignoniaceae Hawar - [22]
121. Drosera burmannii Vahl. Droseraceae Kavara mogga PL [31]
122. Dryopteris felix-mas (Linn.) Schott Polypodiaceae Male fern RT,SD [33]
123. Echinochloa frumentacea Linn. Poaceae Sanwa SD [32]
124. Echinops echinatus Roxb. Asteraceae Utanti PL [51]
125. Embelia ribes Burm. f. Myrsinaceae Baberang RT [22]
126. Enicostemma axillare Gentianaceae - LF [12]
127. Erythrina indica Lam. Fabaceae Dadap LF, RT [33]
128. Erythrina variegata Linn. Var. Fabaceae - E [32]
129. Erythroxylum coca Lam. Erythroxylaceae Koko LF [22]
130. Eupatoriun odoratum Linn. Asteraceae - PL [33]
131. Euphorbia neriifolia Linn. Euphorbiaceae Shehund RT [26]
132. Euphorbia resinifera Berg. Euphorbiaceae - - [22]
133. Euphorbia tirucalli Linn. Euphorbiaceae Konpal PL [52]
134. Excoecaria agallocha Linn. Euphorbiaceae Gangawa PL [22]
135. Ferula assa-foetida Linn. Apiaceae Heeng RE [22]
136. Ficus racemose Moraceae - BR [13]
137. Foeniculum vulgare Mill. Apiaceae Saunf SD [32]
138. Garcinia morella Desr. Clusiaceae Tamel RE [22]
139. Gloriosa superba Linn. Liliaceae Kaliari TU [22]
140. Glossocardia bosvallia DC. Asteraceae Seri PL [33]
141. Glycyrrhiza glabra Linn. Fabaceae Mulethi RT [22]
142. Gossypium herbaceum Linn. Malvaceae Kapas RT [22]
143. Gossypium indicum Lam. Malvaceae Kapas SD [22]
144. Grewia colunnaris Sm. Tiliaceae Gangchi RT [30]
145. Hagenia abyssinica. Rosaceae Cusso - [22]
146. Hibiscus manihot Linn. Malvaceae - BR [33]
147. Hibiscus rosa-sinensis Linn. Malvaceae Gudhal PT [22]
148. Hydrocotyle asiatica Linn. Apiaceae Brahmi PL [33]
149. Hyptis suaveolens Poit. Labiatae Bilati Tulsi LF [53]
150. Indigofera linnaei Ali Fabaceae Tejomala RT [30]
151. Jasminum multiflorum (Burm. f.) Andrews Oleaceae Kundphu - [32]
152. Jatropha curcus Euphorbiaceae Jangli-arandi FR [54]
153. Jatropha gossypifolia Euphorbiaceae LF [14]
154. Juniperus communis Linn. Cupressaceae Aaraar PX, ST, FR [22]
155. Justicia simplex D. Don. Acanthaceae - RT [44]
156. Lagenaria siceraria Standl. Cucurbitaceae Kashiphal FR, SD [26]
157. Laurus nobilis Linn. Lauraceae Hab-el Ghar LF [22]
158. Lawsonia inermis Linn. Lythraceae Hina LF [22]
159. Lepidium sativum Linn. Brassicaceae - SD [22]
160. Lobelia nicotianifolia Heyne Campanulaceae Nala PL [53]
161. Luffa acutangula (Linn.) Roxb. Cucurbitaceae Karvitori RB [33]
162. Luffa echinata Roxb. Cucurbitaceae Ghagarabela - [22]
163. Lycopodium clavatum Linn Lycopodiaceae Bendarli PL [33]
164. Madhuca latifolia Sapotaceae Mahuwa [3]
165. Mallotus philippinensis Muell. Arg. Euphorbiaceae Kamila FR [26]
166. Marsdenia tenacissima (Wright & Arn.) Asclepiadaceae - RT [26]
167. Martynia annua Pedaliaceae Devils claws RT [55]
168. Melia azadirachta Linn. Malvaceae Bakain FL, LF, RE [33]
169. Memecylon amplexicaule Roxb Melastomataceae Perungacha - [32]
170. Mentha arvensis Linn. Labiatae Pudina LF [33]
171. Mesua ferrea Linn. Clusiaceae Nagkesar LF [33]
172. Meyna spinosa Roxb.ex. Link Rubiaceae Meyna FR, SD [28]
173. Michelia champaca Linn. Magnoliaceae Champa LF [15]
174. Mitragyna parvifolia (Roxb.) Korth. Rubiaceae Kadam BR [56]
175. Mollugo cerviana Ser. Ficoidaceae - FL [53]
176. Mollugo pentaphylla Linn. Ficoidaceae Jalpapra PL [53]
177. Momordica charantia Linn. Cucurbitaceae Karela RT [22]
178. Morinda citrifolia Linn. Rubiaceae Ach LF, FR [22]
179. Momordica tuberosa Cogn. Cucurbitaceae Kadavanchi RT [32]
180. Moringa concanesis Nimmo ex Dalz. And Gibs. Moringaceae Ranshevga SB [57]
181. Moringa oleifera Lam.. Moringaceae Sehjan SB [22]
182. Musa sapientum L. Musaceae Banana ST, FL [58]
183. Myristica fragrans Houtt Myristicaceae Jaiphal SD [59]
184. Nardostachys gradiflora DC. Valerianaceae Masi ST [60]
185. Nardostachys jatamansi DC. Valerianaceae Jatamanasi RT [22]
186. Nelumbo nucifera Nymphaeaceae Lotus SD [16]
187. Nerium indicum Mill. Apocynaceae Kaner PL [29]
188. Nerium odorum Soland. Apocynaceae Lal-kaner PL [33]
189. Nigella sativa Linn. Ranunculaceae Kalaunji SD [33]
190. Ocimum sanctum Linn Labiatae Tulsi LF [61]
191. Origanum vulgare Linn. Labiatae Sathra, Baslughas - [62]
192. Pandanus odoratissimus L.f. Pandanaceae Kevera RT, IF [56]
193. Pandanus tectorius Soland. Pandanaceae Keora - [32]
194. Pedilanthus tithymaloides (L.) Poit. Euphorbiaceae - ST [35]
195. Peganum harmala Linn. Zygophyllaceae Gandhya/Harmal PL [57]
196. Picrorhiza kurrooa Benth. Scrophulariaceae Kutki RH [22]
197. Piper betel Pedaliaceae Betel pepper P [58]
198. Piper longum Linn. Piperaceae Pippal FR [22]
199. Piper nigrum  Black pepper [17]
200. Pisum sativum Linn. Fabaceae Mattar SD [32]
201. Plumbago indica Linn. Plumbaginaceae Lal-chitrak RT [32]
202. Plumbago zeylanica Linn. Plumbaginaceae Chitrak RT [33]
203. Plumeria acuminata Ait. Apocynaceae Gobarchampa RT [22]
204. Polygonum hydropiper Polygonaceae Knot weed RT [59]
205. Prangos pabularia Lindl. Apiaceae Komal RT [22]
206. Prosopis cinearia (Linn.) Druce Fabaceae Sangri, Khejda BR, FL RT, FR [23]
207. Prunus armeniaca Rosaceae Apricot K [54]
208. Punica granatum Linn. Punicaceae Anar PC [22]
209. Pyrethrum indicum DC. Asteraceae Guldaudi RT [22]
210. Pyrethrum umbelliferum Boiss. Asteraceae Mithaakarkara RT [22]
211. Randia dumetorum Lamk. Rubiaceae Mainphal SD [33]
212. Randia spinosa (Poir.) Rubiaceae - FR [26]
213. Ranunculus sceleratus Linn. Ranunculaceae Jaldhania PL [22]
214. Raphanus sativus Linn. Brassicaceae Muli SD [22]
215. Rauwolfia serpentina Benth. Apocynaceae Chotachand RT [22]
216. Rhynchosia minima DC. Fabaceae Nelaalumu LF [22]
217. Rivea hypocrateriformis Choisy. Convolvulaceae - PX [63]
218. Rubia cordifolia Linn. Rubiaceae Majitha RT [22]
219. Rubus moluccanus Linn Rosaceae Katsol LF [22]
220. Ruta angustifolia Linn. Rutaceae Sadab LF [22]
221. Ruta graveolens Linn. Rutaceae Salab RT,AP [18]
222. Saccharum bengalense Retz. Poaceae Munj LF [30]
223. Salvia plebeia R. Br. Labiatae Sej SD [22]
224. Santalum album Linn. Santalaceae Chandan PL [22]
225. Sapindus trifoliatus Auct. Sapindaceae Ritha SD [22]
226. Scilla indica (Baker) Liliaceae Jangli Pyaz BU [64]
227. Semecarpus anacardium Linn. Anacardiaceae Bhilawa RT [22]
228. Sesamum indicum DC. Pedaliaceae Til SD [22]
229. Sesbania aegyptiaca Pers. Fabaceae Jayant LF, SD [22]
230. Sesbania sesban Fabaceae Common sesban SD [65]
231. Stephavia japonica (Thumb.) Miers. Menispermaceae Annad-ne- muka RT [28]
232. Striga orobanchiodes Scrophulariaceae Witches weed PL [19]
233. Semecarpus stellata Linn. Anacardiaceae - RT [66]
234. Smithia conferta J.E. Sm. Fabaceae Bhaji LF [39]
235. Solanum virginianum Linn. Solanaceae Rigni RT [67]
236. Soymida febrifuga A. Juss Meliaceae Rohan SB [68]
237. Stachytarpheta jamaicensis Vahl Enum. Verbenaceae Kata punuttu - [32]
238. Stephavia japonica (Thumb.) Miers. Menispermaceae Annad-ne- muka RT [28]
239. Strychnos potatorum loganiaceae Nirmali SD [69]
240. Tabernaemontana heyneana Wall. Apocynaceae Kundalam LA [70]
241. Taxus baccata Linn. Taxaceae Kash FR [22]
242. Tephrosia purpurea Linn. Pers. Fabaceae Unhali LF
243. Terminalia chebula Combretaceae - FR [20]
244. Thevetia peruviana (Pers.) K. Schum. Apocynaceae Kalke SD
245. Thysanolaena (Roxb.) O. Kuntze Poaceae Kutcho FL [71]
246. Trachylobium hornemannianum Heyne. Fabaceae Sandarus RE [33]
247. Trachyspermum ammi Umbelliferae [21]
248. Trachyspermum roxburghianum(DC.) Sprague Apiaceae Ajmud - [32]
249. Trianthema pentandra Linn. Aizoaceae Itsit PL [22]
250. Trianthema portulacastrum Linn. Aizoaceae Lalsabuni RT [22]
251. Trichosanthes bracteata (Lam.) Voigt Cucurbitaceae Kaki-kado SD [30]
252. Trichosanthes cucumerina Linn. Cucurbitaceae Jangli chichonda - [32]
253. Trifolium subterraneum Linn. Fabaceae - - [32]
254. Trichosanthes tricuspidata Lour. Cucurbitaceae Kaundal SD [72]
255. Trigonella foenumgraeceum Linn. Methi SD [22]
Fabaceae
256. Triumfetta bartramia Linn. Tiliaceae Chikti RT [32]
257. Tussilago farfara Linn. Asteraceae Fanjuim LF, RT [22]
258. Uraria lagopoides DC Fabaceae Pithavana PL [32]
259. Uraria lagopodioides Desv. Fabaceae Chintamoni PL [28]
260. Urena lobata Linn. Malvaceae Bachata LF [22]
261. Urginea indica Kunth. Liliaceae Jangli-pyaz BU [22]
262. Uritica dioica Linn. Urticaceae Bichu - [22]
263. Viburnum foetidum Wall. Caprifoliaceae Narvel LF [66]
264. Vicoa indica (L.) DC. Asteraceae Banjhauri RT [73]
265. Viscum articulatum Burm.f. Viscaceae Chettubadanika ST [33]
266. Vitex negundo Linn. Verbenaceae Nirgundi RT,ST [33]
267. Vitex trifolia Linn. Verbenaceae Pani-ki- sambhalu FR [22]
268. Withania somnifera Dunal Solanaceae Asvgandh PL [33]
269. Ziziphora tenuior Linn. Labiatae Mishkataramasha SD [22]
270. Zizyphus xylopyrus (Retz.) Willd. Rhamnaceae Ghatoor FR [30]
s

Table 1: Herbal plants available in India as contraceptives

Trachyspermum ammi (Umbelliferae)

Trachyspermum ammi (Linn) Sprague, well known member of the Umbelliferae family was found to be throughout India. Ethanolic extract of Trachyspermum ammi at four different doses such as 100mg/kg, 200mg/kg and 400mg/kg for a period of 60 days with the recovery group animals for 120 days at the dose of 400mg/kg. Parameters such as testes weight, sperm count, sperm motility, sperm morphology and histopathological examination of the testis are carried out. The study revealed that the drug possess significant male antifertility effect dose dependently [21-30] .

Conclusion

Current interest in traditional medicine has led to the rapid development and studies of many herbal remedies employed for anti-fertility action. Novel information gathered from the current data is important in preserving folk indigenous knowledge as well as in the discovery of novel potential compounds with promising anti-fertility potential. Therefore, this review has been prepared to provide a new compilation of plants with specific use as anti-fertility agents. Moreover, this review has incorporated latest data on new plant species which are not covered in previous reviews on anti-fertility agents.

Future needs for this Area of Research

Majority of plants used as anti-fertility agents, have not been thoroughly experimentally studied on humans. Present data also lacks information on exact mechanism of action and toxic effects of tested extracts. However, this is clearly one area that needs further investigation as findings in animals need to be translated to humans in order for a natural extract to be recommended for traditional use as anti-fertility agents. Therefore, significant research into the chemical and biological properties of such less explored plants is still needed to determine their anti-fertility efficacy and also will possibly define their exact mechanism of actions.

Declare of Interest Statement

We declare that we have no conflict of interest. The authors alone are responsible for the content and writing of the paper.

Acknowledgement

The authors are thankful to Chairman and Director, Himachal Institute of Pharmacy, Paonta Sahib (H.P) for providing support to the study and other necessary facility like internet surfing, library and other technical support to write a review article.

References



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