Background: Gynecological cancers are common and are among the leading causes of cancer‑related deaths worldwide. Aim: The objective of this study was to determine the pattern and relative frequencies of gynecological cancers as seen at the Federal Teaching Hospital, Abakaliki, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: A 2‑year retrospective study of female genital tract malignancies was conducted at the Federal Teaching Hospital, Abakaliki. The case notes of patients admitted for female genital tract malignancy between January 1, 2012 and December 31, 2013 were retrieved from the ward admissions and discharge books and the operating theater record books. The data were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS), IBM SPSS statistics Version 20, IBM incorporation and licensors 1989,2011 New York USA and the results expressed in descriptive statistics by simple percentages. Result: A total of 1,178 women were seen during the study period, while 99 were found to have gynecological malignancy. The proportion of gynecological malignancies was 8.4%. Majority of the patients were in the 5th and 6th decades of life, most (60.6%) had cervical cancer, followed by ovarian cancer (19.2%), endometrial cancer (10.1%) vulva cancer (7.1%), and the least was choriocarcinoma (3.0%). Tumors of fallopian tube and vagina were not seen during the study period. Majority of the patients presented late and the common presentation was vaginal bleeding. Conclusion: Despite the preventable nature of cancer of cervix, it remained the most common female genital tract malignancy in Abakaliki, southeast Nigeria. Education and public enlightenment on the importance of routine screening and treatment of premalignant lesions of the cervix are necessary tools to reduce the incidence and mortality of cervical cancer.
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